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Agarwood tea grown in Tawau district received the thumbs-up from a China importer because it is grown organically and free of chemicals. China need at least 10,000 packets daily at local market demand.

Shanghai Lenian E-Commerce Co. Ltd General Manager, Jiao Chang Qi, who has been importing the material from Balung Eco-Resort for its health products since November 2011 acknowledged the high quality of the agarwood tea leaves here. He said this while leading 18 distributors of his company's products to visit Balung Eco-Resort, Teck Guan Cocoa Plantation and Pulau Bum-Bum, Semporna in 2012. The visit was to see for themselves the products and high quality crops here.


"We want to open up a networking opportunity and bilateral trade relationship between China and Malaysia, especially in supplying herbs for health products in China," Shanghai Lenian E-Commerce Co. Ltd General Manager, Jiao Chang Qi, said.


Shanghai also importing Java tea planted in Tawau. The demand for Balung Java tea in China was high and recently supply was insufficient to meet the demand for 65,000 boxes of the product.
 


 

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KADAZANDUSUN

OF KUALA PENYU, SABAH,

MALAYSIA.

By Julius Kulip, Sining Unchi Ph.D. and George Majawat

Forestry Research Centre Sabah
Forestry Department Sabah
P.O.Box 1407
90715 Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Eighty seven medicinal plants species in 50 families and 84 genera are documented. These plants are represented by 3 families of Pteridophytes (6%), 6 families of Monocotyledons (12%) and 41 families of Dicotyledons (82%). The medicinal values of 45 species (53%) have not been previously reported from other parts of Sabah. The preparation, utilization and Kadazandusunic names of Tatana group along with the scientific names and their role in local culture for healthcare are discussed.

INTRODUCTION

Kuala Penyu district (5 30’N 115 30’E and 5 34’ 15"N - 115 34’ 15"E) is one of the 20 districts and 9 sub-districts under the administration of the Rural and Entrepreneurial Development Ministry of Sabah. This district comprises different types of forest zones. It harbors a very rich and unique flora including many species of medicinal plants, which may be a source for gainful exploitation of natural resources. The area occupies 453 km square and is inhibited by Kadazandusun of the Tatana group, Bisaya, Kedayan as well as Bruneis. The topography is flatland, located at coastal area with some undulating terrain and the altitude varies from 10 - 100 m.a.s.l. with tropical climate, its mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 31.3 o C and 25.2 o C, respectively. The average annual rainfall is 2,174.4 ml (Department of Statistic, 1998). There is one government district hospital located at the town centre. The road around this district is fairly good and accessible but some areas inaccessible during heavy rain.

Ethnobotanically, the area remains unexplored and no comprehensive account of local tradition is available, except documentation by Ahmad and Raji (1991), Guntavid (1992) and Kulip (1996) in other districts in Sabah.. It was also interesting to know that the Kadazandusun of Tatana people is the largest group occupying this area and have been using local traditional medicines for quite a long time and extensively compared to other groups. In view of this, a survey of the medicinal properties of plants used by the Kadazandusun of the Tatana group was initiated.

METHODS

An ethnobotanical survey of Kuala Penyu district was conducted during the month of August 1998 for about two weeks. Survey methods followed the Inventory of Herbal drugs in Nepal (Manandhar, 1995). Tatana people from the Kadazandusun tribe involving 8 herbalists from 7 villages of different parts of the district were personally interviewed. Each interviewee was brought to the nearby forest and garden to collect plant. Interviews were conducted for periods varying from two hours to two days. Herbalists were given more time during the interview. The medicinal property of each species was recorded. Medical symptoms and illness followed the Wordsworth Medical Companion (Pescar and Nelson, 1996). The people interviewed were active and cooperative. Their age averaged between 45 - 75 years.

THE PLANTS

The plants which are best known and most highly regarded in local medicines are enumerated in alphabetical order of botanical name, family (in parentheses), Tatana name, collection number of Forestry Department Sabah herbarium (SAN) and, finally the usage of the plant parts in various treatments.

Plants that can be identified on the spot were collected and identified by the authors by comparing the identified herbarium specimens preserved in the herbarium of the Forestry Department Sabah. The herbarium is located at the Forest Research Centre Sabah, Sepilok, Sandakan, where the present specimens have been deposited. Plants that were identified scientifically on the spot were noted but not collected.

A: SPECIMENS COLLECTED.

Agelaea macrophylla (Zool.) Leeuh. (Connaraceae); Akar Malam; SAN 142091. Juice of plant is applied to treat acne.

Archiodendron ellipticum (Bl.) Nielsen (Leguminosae); Bulinat; SAN 142705. Leaf is dried, burnt to smoke to be inhaled, to treat intoxicated by intoxicant food.

Ardisia colorata Roxb. (Myrsinaceae); Pacar inai;SAN 142074. Paste of leaf is applied to treat herpes zoster or a kind of measles. This plant is also a source of colour.

Arthrophyllum diversifolium Bl. (Araliaceae); Ondolus; SAN 142703. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 3 times daily is taken for about 3 weeks, to treat bodily pains and yellowish body.

Bauhenia semibifida Roxb. var semibifida (Leguminosae); Daup-Daup; SAN 142077. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 3 times daily is taken, to treat fatigue.

Bridelia stipularis (Linn.) Blume (Euphorbiaceae); Bungkilat; SAN 142706. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. once a day is taken for about 3 weeks, for post-partum treatment and thrush.

Bulbophyllum mutabile (Bl.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae); Tatau; SAN 142072. Leaf is boiled and the decoction is used for bath to treat fever because of black magic.

Callicarpa longifolia Lam. (Verbenaceae); Liuliu; SAN 142076. Leaf is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken, to treat malaria.

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbiliferae); Pegagoh or Salapid; SAN 142080. Leaf is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for about 3 weeks, to treat hot body and hypertension and to treat cough for mother who just give birth.

Cnestis platantha Griff. (Connaraceae); Binsangut; SAN 142053. Paste of young leaf is warmed and applied to treat fever during flu.

Combretum nigrescens King (Combretaceae); Karit ; SAN 142055. Paste of young leaf is warmed and applied to treat nail diseases.

Croton caudatus Geisel (Euphorbiaceae); Tapasan Komudi ; SAN 142097. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 3 times daily is taken for 3 days to treat weak body and to avoid diseases.

Dalbergia parvifolia Roxb. (Leguminosae); Usap Kuliou; SAN 142059. Root is boiled and infusion, about 3 tsp. 3 times daily is taken about 4 weeks, for treatment of post partum.

Dendrophoetoe constricta Dans. (Loranthaceae); Salidan; SAN 142071. Paste of leaf is applied to treat headache affected by Balan-balan ghost.

Epiphyllum hookeri (Link.&Otto) Haw. (Cactaceae); Bunga Raja; SAN 142073. Flower is boiled and eaten to treat bradycardia or slow heart beat.

Eranthemum borneense Hook. f. (Acanthaceae); Sangsangkaruk; SAN 142079. Paste of leaf is applied to treat dislocation of muscles and for post-partum .

Globba patens Miq. (Zingiberaceae); Lompuyang;SAN 142093. Paste of rhizome, mixed with rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and soaked into some alcohol is applied as carminative.

Glochidion littorale Bl. (Euphorbiaceae); Saka-Saka; SAN 142714. Paste of young leaf is applied to treat stings by jelly fish.

Gnetum leptostachyum Bl. (Gnetaceae); Langod-Langod; SAN 142052. Juice of plant, about 4 tsp. 3 times daily is given to relieve fever and flu.

Guioa pterorhachis Welsen (Sapindaceae); Tug-Tug; SAN 142100. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 3 times daily is taken for about 3 weeks, to treat painful at the upper abdomen.

Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook. (Ophioglossaceae); Sasanggoh; SAN 142082. Leaf is dried and smoked to treat bleeding nose.

Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae); Daun Baru; SAN 142064. Paste of leaf, mixed with leaf of Mata Punai (SAN 142062), is applied to treat headache with bleeding nose.

Hoya coronaria Bl. ( Asclepiadaceae); Takop: SAN 142058. Paste of leaf is applied to treat cuts and wounds.

Indorouchera griffithiana (Panch.) Hall. (Linaceae); Tapor:SAN 142704. Root or juice of plant is taken to treat constipation. In case of root, it is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 3 times daily is taken for 3 days. Juice of plant, about 6 tsp. 3 times daily is taken for 3 days.

Ipomea pes-caprae (L.) R.Br. (Convovulaceae); Kasiladat; SAN 142061. Juice, mixed with juice of Balaan (SAN142056) is given to treat internal injury.

Ixora elliptica R.Br et Ridl. (Rubiaceae); Kasumba; SAN 142067. Leaf and root , mixed with root of Badaduk or Decaspermum fruticosum (Myrtaceae - SAN 142068) or root of Biliusa or Arytera sp. (Sapindaceae-SAN 142069) is boiled and the infusion, about 150ml 2 times daily is taken, to treat warm body and fatigue. The decoction is also used for bath.

Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae); Kakai Ayam; SAN 142078. Root is boiled and infusion, about 150 ml. 3 times daily is taken, to treat diarrhea. Juice of plant and bark is applied to treat thrush. Paste of young leaf is applied to treat cuts and wounds.

Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. (Oleaceae); Piring-Piring; SAN 142084. Young leaf is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for about 3 weeks, to treat gallstones. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 3 times daily is taken for about 3 weeks, to treat diabetes mellitus.

Lophopetalum beccarianum Pierre (Celasteraceae); Boliadak; SAN 142713. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 2 times daily is taken for about one week, to treat giddiness.

Lygodium circinnatum (Burm.) Sw. (Schizaeaceae); Ribu-ribu; SAN 142083. Young leaf is soaked in water, wrapped with clean cloth and squeezed. Drop is applied to treat eye pains.

Merremia peltata Merr.; (Convovulaceae); Akar Balaan; SAN 142056. Juice of plant and juice of kasiladat (SAN 142061), about 2 tsp. 3 times daily is given to treat internal injury.

Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae); SAN 132253; Bingkudu. Ripe fruit is taken to treat gastritis. Leaf is heated and applied to treat swollen pancreas.

Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC) K.Heyne (Leguminosae); Cugah; SAN 142051. The bark is boiled and baths to treat skin itch.

Passiflora foetida L. (Passifloraceae) Mansiakau; SAN 142065. Paste of leaf is applied to treat itchy.

Phyllanthus debili Klein ex Willd. (Euphorbiaceae); Lumot ;SAN 142070. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 3 time daily is taken for about 3 weeks used to make a post partum protective medicine.

Phytocrene borneensis Becc. (Icacinaceae); Labu Kala; SAN 142060. Paste of root is applied to treat leprosy.

Planchonella obovata R. Br. Pie(Sapotaceae): Gombirat;SAN 142063. Paste of leaf is warmed and applied to treat headache with cold and bodily pains.

Premna integrifolia L. (Verbenaceae); Buas-Buas; SAN 142710. Root, mixed with leaf of Citrus sp. and Allium sativum is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. once a day is taken for 3 days, to treat flatulence.

Prunus javanica (T.B.) Miq. (Chrysobalanaceae); Kalanos; SAN 142099. Bark is dried and burnt to smoke and applied to child to treat crying.

Schefflera lasiocalyx Ridl. (Araliaceae); Mata punai; SAN 142062. Paste of leaf, mixed with leaf of Akar balaan (SAN 142056) is applied on forehead to relieve headache with bleeding nose.

Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae); Lalasang; SAN 142092. Entire plant is dried and burnt to give smoke and applied to crying child at night.

Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae); Bolitotok; SAN 142090. Paste of young leaf is applied to treat abscess.

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae); SAN 132251; Bunga Malam. Entire plant is boiled and the decoction is applied to treat sprain.

Syzygium cerina Hend. (Myrtaceae); Bagu; SAN 142715. Root is soaked into local alcohol (montoku) for drink as tonic.

Trichilia trijuga (Meliaceae) ; Kayu Kaling ; SAN 142711. Paste of bark is applied to treat cuts and wound.

Urena lobata L. (Malvaceae); Onggurupang; SAN 142066. Root is kept between the teeth to avoid drunk during drinking of alcohol.

Uvaria sorsogonensis Bl. (Annonaceae); Sogombong; SAN 142054. Paste of leaf is warmed and applied to treat stomachache.

B: SPECIMENS NOT COLLECTED ( identified on the spot).

Agelaea trinervis (Llanos) Merr. (Connaraceae); Kalam malam.. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml once a day is taken for one week, to treat physical fatigue.

Amaranthus spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae); Bayam babi. Leaf is soaked into hot water and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for 3 days, to treat thrush of children.

Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) ; Lampun Labuan. Young leaf is boiled and the infusion about 150 ml. 3 times daily is taken for 3 days to cure stomachache and 3 weeks to treat hypertension.

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae); Nangko. Root, mixed with root of Cocos nucifera (Palmae)and Artocarpus integer (Moraceae) is boiled and the decoction is bath once a day for about 3 weeks, for post-partum treatment. The infusion about 150 ml once a day is taken.

Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Oxalidaceae); Tulod-ulod. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml once a day is taken for 3 weeks, for post-partum treatment.

Blechnum orientale L. (Blechnaceae); Dungau. Paste of young frond is applied to treat abscess.

Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. (Compositae); Tawawo. Leaf, mixed with leaf of Citrus sp. (Rutaceae) and Cymbopogon nardus (Gramineae) is boiled and the decoction is bath once a day for about 3 weeks, to relieve body aches, pains and for post-partum treatment.

Bombax ceiba L. (Euphorbiaceae); Kapok. Leaf is soaked into water and the decoction is taken for bath once a day about 3 days to treat bodily pains.

Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Kapayas. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for 2 days, to treat bodily pains and as an appetizer.

Cassia alata L. (Leguminosae); Bolilang. Paste of young leaf is applied to treat fungal disease on skin. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for 3 days, to treat yellowish body.

Citrulus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nak. (Cucurbitaceae); Sikui. Juice of young leaf is applied to treat eye pains.

Curcuma domestica Val. (Zingiberaceae); Kunyit. Paste of young leaf is warmed and applied to treat stomachache.

Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (Gramineae); Capai Pimping. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for one week, to treat physical fatigue.

Donax grandis (Miq.) Ridl. (Maranthaceae); Lamah. Juice of plant is applied as an eyedrops 3 times daily to treat eye pains.

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. f. (Gramineae); Salinatad. Root, mixed with root of Capsicum sp. (Solanaceae) is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for 3 days, to treat piles.

Eupatorium odoratum L. (Compositae); Ongkop-Ongkop. Paste of young leaf is applied to treat cuts and wounds.

Eurycoma longifolia Jack. (Simaroubaceae) ; Tongkat Ali. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 2 times daily is taken for 3 days to promote sweating (diaphoretic agent).

Fibraurea tinctoria Lour. (Menispermaceae); Silou. Stem is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 3 times daily is taken for about 3 weeks, to treat yellowish body.

Ficus fistulosa Reinw. (Moraceae); Lintotobou Putih. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml once a day is taken for 3 days, as a diaphoretic.

Flagellaria indica L. (Flagellariaceae); Owoi Asu. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for 3 days, as health tonic.

Gigantochloa levis (Blanco) Merill. (Bambusoideae); Poring. Juice of stem is taken about 150 ml to reduce body temperature.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Pangkat. Paste of young leaf is applied to treat headache.

Heliciopsis ortocarpoides (Elmer) Sleum (Proteaceae); Rusap Tambang. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for 3 weeks, as lactogenic.

Justicia gendarussa Burm. (Acanthaceae); Sibangun. Paste of young leaf is warmed and applied to treat broken/fracture bone or dislocation of muscle.

Koompasia excelsa (Becc.) Taubert. (Leguminosae); Monggis. Sapwood is boiled and the decoction is taken for bath once a day for 3 weeks, for treatment of post- partum.

Lansium domesticum Corr. emend. Jack (Meliaceae); Hansat. Bark is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for 3 days, to treat malaria.

Litsea odorifera Val. (Lauraceae); Medang Pawas. Paste of leaf is warmed and applied to treat stomachache.

Oncosperma tigillarium (Jack.) Ridley (Palmae); Nibong. Root, mixed with root of Areca catechu (Palmae) is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 2 times daily is taken for about 3 days, to increases / improves man’s vitality.

Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae). Kupang-Kupang. Paste of leaf is applied and an infusion of the root , about 150 ml. once a day is taken for 3 days , to treat wound’s of children.

Physalis minima L. (Solanaceae). Lapak. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for about 3 weeks, to treat hypertension.

Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae); Biabas. Young leaf is warmed and soaked into water. The infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for about 3 days, to treat diarrhea.

Pterocarpus indicus Willd. (Leguminosae); Angsana. Bark is soaked into water and the decoction, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken (gargle) for one day, to treat blister. Paste of young leaf is applied to treat headache.

Pterospermum stapfianum Ridl. (Sterculiaceae); Litak. Paste of bark is applied to treat fever.

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. (Myrtaceae). Dunduok. Root is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 3 times daily is taken for about 3 days, to treat bloody vomits.

Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poiret (Leguminosae); Kembang Tuli. Paste of young leaf is applied to treat dislocation of muscle.

Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae); Binterung. Fruit is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for 3 days, to treat hemorrhoids.

Terminalia cattapa L. (Combretaceae); Talisai laut. Young leaf is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for 3 weeks, to treat diabetes mellitus and backache.

Tetracera scandens (L.) Merr. (Dilleniaceae); Pampan. Juice of plant about 1 table spoon 3 times daily is taken to treat internal pains.

Vitex pubescens Vahl. ( Verbenaceae); Kulimpapa. Bark or leaf is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml. 3 times daily is taken for 3 days, to treat stomachache or bleeding stool.

Xylocarpus granatum Koenig. (Meliaceae); Nyirih. Bark is boiled and the infusion, about 150 ml 3 times daily is taken for 3 days, to treat cold fever.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Eighty-seven species of herbal medicines in 50 families and 84 genera have been recorded in the course of the study. These plants represent 3 families of Pteridophytes (6 %), 6 families of Monocotyledons (12 %) and 42 families of Dicotyledons (82 %). Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae families are the most used plant in Tatana medicinal plants followed by Rubiaceae, Verbenaceae, Gramineae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Connaraceae and Moraceae (Table 1). These shows that Euphorbiaceae and Leguminosae are most likely have many active compounds that are useful for medicines. Only 37 species recorded as exotic species compared to 51 indigenous species (Table 2). The medicinal value of 45 species (53 %) (Table 3) have not been previously reported from other parts of Sabah when compared to previously reports by Ahmad and Raji (1991), Guntavid (1992) and Kulip (1996). From this study, it was found that plants are used to treat mostly for body pains (fatigue), headache, fevers, cut and wounds and post-partum (Table 4).

Other than herbalists in the district, the adults are knowledgeable about the uses of plants where they exchange information with other villagers (the Kedayan and Bajau people) living in the district. The feedback from the villagers also showed that not all of the medicinal plants are used nowadays. But some medicinal plants which are used to treat newly delivered mother for post-partum treatment are still being used until today, for example Dalbergia parvifolia or Usap Kuliou and Bauhenia semidifida Roxb. var. semibifida or Daup-daup. The bark of Peltophorum pterocarpum or Cugah which grows near seashores ar e peeled off by villagers to treat skin diseases. Most of the populace preferred to take modern medicine first, and if the illness is still persist, they will use traditional medicinal plants for cure. Local treatment in Kuala Penyu seems to be a family affair where a fee ( or locally known as pikodou ) is given to native healers such as a white chicken and a bowl, or given upon the wish of the patient.

The idea of having many plants for a single treatment of ailment, (i.e. in the case of treatment for body pains, headache, fevers, post-partum and cuts and wounds) is firstly, if a patient does not get relief from one remedy (plant) during a specified period of time, generally another remedy is tried, and, secondly if the plant can not be found on specified time, another plant is taken as a substitute.
 


 

 October 16, 2012 02:34:48 PM

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