Last Updated on Thursday, 15 June, 2023 01:06:36 PM

INDEX  >  Damselflies of Borneo  >  Family of Protoneuridae 原蟌科

Prodasineura hyperythra 婆羅洲原蟌
Family of Protoneuridae

In Borneo are 18 species in two Genus in this family of Protoneuridae:

1 Genus Elattoneura

2 Genus Prodasineura

 Borneo has 18 species in two genera, Elattoneura and Prodasineura. All are small, of slender build, with narrow, hyaline, sometimes lightly tinted wings, rounded at the tip. Venation is reduced, with the anal vein entirely lacking or represented as a short anal bridge. The quadrilateral is long and rectangular.

The pterostigma is usually dark and never very long (at most about 1.5 times as long as broad), most commonly lozenge- or diamond-shaped.

The male abdomen is of moderate length, about 1.5 times the length of the hind wing; the female abdomen is only a little shorter and more robust. Most species are marked in either red, orange or blue or are unmarked. The ground color is usually matt black, only occasionally with a bronzy sheen.

Male anal appendages are robust and squat, typically about as long as the last abdominal segment. The upper pair usually have a strong ventral spine but this may be difficult to interpret when its inner margin is hidden behind the tenth segment. The short lower pair often terminate in a thin distal process curling inwards. Although male terminalia of the different species are similar in general form, slight differences can be very useful in diagnosis. Likewise the posterior lobe of the female prothorax varies considerably and can be a good character for separating close species.
Backwater of a small clear stream in dipterocarp forest.
Backwaters of small clear streams in dipterocarp forest.

Most protoneurids are found near slowly flowing water in swampy places沼澤地, in sluggish streams 緩慢的溪流 or in backwaters 死水 of fast running rivers. They are almost confined to forested areas in the lowlands. Although they are often abundant, little is known of their biology. Females oviposit in root masses under banks, typically in tandem with the male erect in the 'sentinel' position, but sometimes alone. The larvae are short and stout with broad heads and proportionally long legs. The caudal lamellae are flattened, short, broad and rounded with the central gill shorter than the lateral ones. Mouthparts, including the mask and its arrangement of setae, are basically similar to those found in some Coenagrionidae and it may be difficult to separate larvae of these families. They are found in silty areas and among root masses.


Five species of Elattoneura are known from Borneo. E. analis is superficially like the common Prodasineura verticalis. The two species are sometimes found flying together, but they differ significantly in color and markings and have slightly different venation. In particular the male of analis has a prominent orange spot at the tip of the abdomen which is lacking in P. verticalis, and the orange color is less intense. E. analis is sometimes quite common on backwaters of small clear streams in dipterocarp forest but it also occurs in alluvial and freshwater swamp forest, especially around Pamlcmus, where males are often found resting among the foliage. In immature the orange color is replaced by pale blue. Also locally common is E. aurantiaca (not illustrated). It is mainly golden yellow-orange with a broad metallic blue-green band on the dorsum of the synthorax. It looks superficially rather like the common coenagrionid Teinobasis rajah but it is more slightly built and has very different wing venation, notably the strong reduction of the anal vein. It is found locally in all types of swamp forest but is probably more common in the south. The three remaining species are seldom encountered and are more or less confined to swamp forest in the southern and western parts of the island. E. longispina is very similar to E. analis in its markings but the ventral spine on the superior anal appendage of the male is exceptionally long and thin . On average it is a little smaller than E. analis. E. coomansi is a very fine, mainly dark species from the west and E. erythromma is a small, fine insect with dark russet antehumeral bands from the south. In life, its eyes are red.

Of the many species of Prodasineura, one of the most widely encountered is the strongly orange-striped P. verticalis . Similar marking occurs in the female but is paler and somewhat reduced. It is found in a wide range of lowland forest but is most common on small to medium-sized streams in mixed dipterocarp forest. It often perches on riverside vegetation, including Pinanga and Pandanus, but when on the wing it can be extremely inconspicuous.

Females generally oviposit alone, typically in root masses in the riverbanks . Several other species have predominantly linear orange markings on the thorax including P. hosei and P. peramoena both recorded from peat swamp and dipterocarp forest streams in west and north-west Borneo.

Protoneuridae includes some 240 species found throughout the world's tropics. In Borneo there are 18 species in two genera, Elattoneura and Prodasineura.

All are small ( hw, 16-20 mm), of slender build, with narrow, hyaline, sometimes lightly tinted wings, rounded at the tip. Venation is reduced, with the anal vein entirely lacking or represented as a short anal bridge. The quadrilateral is long and rectangular.

Genus Prodasineura
14 species in this genus were found in Borneo

Prodasineura hyperythra

2022-08-11 MELANGKAP
*Endenmic of Borneo
Kg Melangkap Tiong

Prodasineura verticalisProdasineura verticalisProdasineura verticalis
Prodasineura verticalis

Prodasineura verticalis is one of the most slender damselfly in Borneo.

♂37mm Juvenile
♀37mm Juvenile

2017-05-30 SG TAWAU

Prodasineura dorsalisProdasineura dorsalis
Prodasineura dorsalis


2008-05-28 BAKO PARK




Here are index to damselflies sorted according to colour for our quick identification:

1- GREEN damselflies of Sabah, Borneo
2- BLUE damselflies
3- RED damselflies
4- ORANGE damselflies

Out of the global 10 families of damselflies, the following 7 families  are found in Borneo Island :

01- Family Calopterygidae 色蟌科
02- Family Chlorocyphidae 鼻蟌科
03- Family Coenagrionidae 細蟌科
04- Family Euphaeidae 溪蟌科
05- Family Lestidae 絲蟌科
06- Family Platycnemididae  琵蟌科/扇蟌科
07- Family Protoneuridae 原蟌科


HEAD of Damselflies

Damselfly head include :
1- compound eyes,
2- ocelli,
3- antennae,
4- mouth structures

Common dragonflies in Borneo Island
Dragonflies of Borneo

"With 275 named species so far recorded in Borneo, the island has one of the richest and most exciting dragonfly faunas in the world. More than 40% of species occur nowhere else, making it the most distinctive sub-region of Sundaland." A Guide to the Dragonflies of Borneo by Albert G. Orr


Dragonflies of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore

Dragonflies are among the most beautiful of insects. Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore are home to more than 230 species (twice the number found in Europe). They include some of the most exquisite forms found anywhere in the World.

Ficus subgelderi 淡金榕
Fig trees of Sabah

Borneo has 150 species of wild fig trees. Most of them are found in forests of Sabah.

Tiger Prawn Farms in Tawau
Tiger Prawn Farms in Tawau

Prawn farming is a main commercial activities in Tawau. Spawners from Tawau are graded the best in Malaysia. For decades, Tawau has been exporting high-grade tiger prawns to several countries such as Korea, Japan, Taiwan, China, Vietnam, Singapore, Egypt and Australia.

A Guide to Common Spiders in BORNEO ISLAND

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Damselflies of Borneo