Updated On : Sunday, 27 February, 2022 02:18:24 PM

HOME  >  Flora of Borneo  >  Family Moraceae  >  Genus Ficus 婆羅洲榕屬植物


Identify Fig Trees by Fig Fruits :

1- Fig Fruits of Root Climber
2- Fig Fruits of Short Tree
3- Fig Fruits of Short Tree Earth Fig
4- Fig Fruits of Shrub
5- Fig Fruits of Strangler with Many Roots
6- Fig Fruits of Strangler with One Trunk
7- Fig Fruits of Tall Tree
8- Fig Fruits of Tree Trunk Fig

Ficus virens 大葉榕?
Ficus virens

大葉榕?
Monoecious 雌雄同株
Strangler with Many Roots


The Eight Physical types of Fig Trees in Borneo:
There are 8 types of Fig Trees physically:

1- Root Climber
2- Short Tree
3- Short Tree Earth Fig
4- Shrub
5- Strangler with Many Roots
6- Strangler with One Trunk
7- Tall Tree
8- Tree Trunk Fig


5/8  Strangler with Many Roots

1- F. virens 黃葛樹 (大葉榕?) Chinese name possibly wrong


3/8 Short Tree Earth Fig :

1- F. beccarii
2- F. malayana
3- F. megaleia
4- F. tarennifolia
5- F. treubii
6- F. uncinata


1/8  Root Climbers :

1- F. allutacea
2- F. barba-jovis
3- F. punctata
4- F. recurva
5- F. villosa


7/8  Tall Trees :
1- F. callosa
2- F. nervosa


2/8 Short Trees Ficus :
1- F. uarata
2- F. brunneoaurata
3- F. eumorpha
4- F. fulva
5- F. grossularioides
6- F. lepicarpa
7- F. melinocarpa


8/8 Tree Trunk Figs :

1- F. cereicarpa
2- F. fistulosa
3- F. francisi
4- F. racemosa
5- F. rosulata
6- F. satterthwaitei
7- F. variegata


Tree Trunk Figs
聚果榕 Ficus racemosa
Monoecious 雌雄同株
聚果榕 Ficus racemosa
聚果榕 Ficus racemosa

Shangri-la Tg Aru Resort 2021-04-10 SAT

An unidentified NON-POLLINATING fig wasp
that also breed in the fig, but which play no role in the pollination process.
♀2.25mm+4mm
Non-pollinators fig wasp lay eggs through the fig skin early in fruit development.


Comparison of Ficus obscura 暗榕 and Ficus scaberrima 粗葉榕

Ficus obscura 暗榕 Dioecious
Ficus scaberrima 粗葉榕 Dioecious

"....Previously F. scaberrima was known as Ficus pisifera but was split by Berg (2005) into two species, Ficus scaberrima in which the figs are hairless and Ficus obscura in which the figs are very hairy. ..."

Ficus scaberrima or Ficus obscura ?
borneoficus.info/2020


Stranglers with Many Roots
Ficus parietalis磚脈榕
Dioecious雌雄異株

Ficus parietalis磚脈榕
Fruits from a a FEMALE tree


Family Moraceae
Ficus dubia 深紅果榕
Strangler with One Trunk

Ficus dubia fruits collected from Maliau Basin
Ficus dubia fruits

Ficus dubia 深紅果榕

Distinguishing Ficus drupacea and Ficus dubia by leaf and stipule.


Ficus dubia fruiting at Maliau attracts Borneo’s two largest hornbills.


Family Moraceae
Ficus subgelderi 淡金榕
Stranglers with One Trunk

Ficus subgelderi 淡金榕

淡金榕(金葉榕) Ficus subgelderi


Tree Trunk Figs
Ficus rosulata 施瓦茨榕
(Ficus schwarzii 2010)
Ficus schwarzii is now Ficus rosulata, Berg (2010)


Some common Figs of Borneo

Some common Figs of Borneo

1-Ficus drupacea 枕果榕 Monoecious 17.2mm

2-Ficus religiosa 菩提樹 Monoecious 12.1mm

3-Ficus heteropleura 尾葉榕 Dioecious ♀8.5mm

4-Ficus obscura 暗榕 Dioecious ♀11.7mm

5-Ficus microcarpa 細葉榕 Monoecious 8.6mm

6-Ficus benjamina 垂葉榕 Monoecious 8.6mm

7-Ficus cumingii 糙毛榕 Dioecious ♂9.0mm


Figs of Borneo
Some Common Figs of Borneo
1-Ficus heteropleura 尾葉榕 Dioecious ♀9.0mm

2-Ficus tinctoria 斜葉榕 Dioecious ♀9.5mm

3-Ficus cumingii 糙毛榕 Dioecious ♀11.0mm

4-Ficus septica 棱果榕 Dioecious ♂19.3mm

5-Ficus benjamina 垂葉榕 Monoecious 8.6mm

6-Ficus microcarpa 細葉榕 Monoecious 6.8mm
 


Some Common Figs of Tawau Town:
Some Common Figs of Tawau Town:
1- Ficus religiosa 菩提樹 Monoecious

2- Ficus microcarpa 細葉榕 Monoecious

3- Ficus benjamina 垂葉榕 Monoecious

4- Ficus tinctoria 斜葉榕 Dioecious
 



 


The Two Reproduction types of Fig trees in Borneo:
There are 2 types of Fig trees in ways they reproduce:
1- Monoecious 雌雄同株 (having both male and female reproductive organs in the SAME plant.)
2- Dioecious雌雄異株 (having the male and female reproductive organs in SEPARATE plant.)


The Five Developing stages of a Dioecious Fig species with separate MALE and FEMALE trees:

MALE FIG FEMALE FIG
MALE figs do not produce seeds for system. Male figs host development of pollinator wasps to pollinate FEMALE figs that produce seeds to continue the system. But for some FEMALE fruits that do not support wasp development, the development stages is best classifies according ripening stages:
FEMALE figs produce seeds to continue the system. Female figs do not support in developing the eggs into wasps.
1-Pre-receptive
2-Wasp-receptive
3-Wasp-developing
4-Wasp-emerging
5-Ripe
1-Pre-receptive
2-Pollinator Wasp-receptive
3-Seeds-developing
4-Seeds-hardening
5-Ripe

The Two Categories of Wasps that emerged from fig fruits:

1- POLLINATOR
2- NON-POLLINATOR

Pollinators and non-pollinating fig wasps breed in the fig, but non-pollinating wasps play no role in the pollination process.

Non-pollinators are pest wasps
From fig fruits’s perspective they are unwanted interlopers. In Borneo, more than one species of non-pollinating fig wasp can be associated with a particular fig tree species. For example Ficus septica 棱果榕 has two non-pollinating wasps.
Most of the non-pollinators lay eggs by inserting their ovipositor through the fig wall from the outside of the fig. These wasps often have extremely long “tails” (external ovipositors) the length of which has been evolutionarily determined by wall thickness of their host fig species.



RELATED  TOPICS


Tawau Hills Fig Garden at Tawau Hills Park in Sabah
Tawau Hills Fig Garden at Tawau Hills Park in Sabah

Borneo’s second fig garden. (Started in 2021)

A conservation centre started in 2021 in planting  local Ficus in Tawau Hills Park as a means to supply foods to the wildlife. With a long term goal of preserving the park's buffer zone into Borneo First Botanic Garden

".... we hope that this living example of what is possible will stimulate the creation of hundreds of similar projects throughout Borneo. We can provide free fig seeds and growing advice to anyone interested in similar projects and forest restoration....."


Plant4Tawau project objectives
www.1stopborneo.org/corridors

 


Sabah Ficus Germplasm Centre (SFGC) at Tabin in Sabah
Sabah Ficus Germplasm Centre (SFGC) at Tabin in Sabah

Borneo’s first fig garden. (Started in 2011)

A conservation centre started in 2011 in planting and cultivating many kinds of local Ficus in Tabin a means to supply rhino food. With a long-term plan of serving as  a store of  fig species of Sabah and a  source of planting materials for restoration work in Forest Reserves and for private land owners.


Kinarut Figs Garden at Kg. Langkuas, Kinarut.
Kinarut Figs Garden at Kg. Langkuas, Kinarut.


Tawau Figs Garden in Tawau, Sabah
Tawau Figs Garden in Tawau, Sabah

 


Fig Tree Garden (FTG)  at Tasek Gelugor, Penang.
Fig Tree Garden (FTG)  at Tasek Gelugor, Penang.



GO FURTHER


ANIMALS

Wildlife and Environmental Protection in Sabah
Wildlife and Environmental Protection in Sabah


ENVIRONMENT

Maliau Basin
Maliau Basin

 

Maliau Basin is perhaps the most mysterious of all jungles in Malaysia. It looks like a volcanic caldera surrounded by cliffs and slopes up to 1500 m in heights, making it almost impossible to access on foot from most directions. But for the determined, not only is it a rich unspoiled rainforest, it boasts an awe-inspiring seven-tier waterfall.


HISTORY & CULTURE

The Joy of Tawau Cultural Festival
Tawau Cultural Festival


TRAVEL


Tourism in Sabah




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